Á byrjendanámskeiði í Svifvængjaflugi útskrifum við nemendur samkvæmt alþjóðlegum staðli með Parapro 2 réttindi.
Parapro 1. GROUND SKIMMING
(Don’t fly higher than you would care to fall!) (this stage is combined with stage 2)
Parapro 2. ALTITUDE GLIDING
(Altitude and space to manoeuvre, no soaring)
A student pilot is one that is under a training system, controlled by an instructor, and all his flying shall be in accordance with the instructor guidelines.
Recommended training and safety limitations
Students should always fly under the supervision of an instructor. Before all the rating requirements are met they should always fly under the direct supervision of an instructor.
Students should only fly paragliders and harnesses suitable for students and which they have been checked out on by the instructor. They should only do tuning and repairs when approved by the instructor.
Students should only fly demonstration or competition flying at the stages they are rated for and always under the direct supervision of an instructor.
Students stage 1, 2 and 3 should be given the necessary lectures, briefings, oral discussions and written tests to ensure that the required knowledge needed to meet the objectives of the applicable stage, is acquired. The listed requirements are a guide to meet those objectives. They should not restrict anybody from giving additional instruction if found necessary.
The methods of instruction may vary and are left to the discretion of the organiser/instructor.
The experience requirements should be documented by a logbook or reliable witnesses. The instructor or observer should be convinced that the minimum requirements are met or he/she must require further proof.
Low flights is gliding near the ground over smooth terrain, normally not above 5 meters.
Altitude gliding is gliding with enough height and distance from the terrain to be able to manoeuvre relatively freely.
PARA PRO Stage 2, KNOWLEDGE Requirements:
1. Lift: Difference in pressure created by: profile, airspeed and angle of attack. Low pressure over the wing, high pressure under the wing. Definition of: relative wind, even (laminar) airflow.
2. Lift factors: airfoils (wing profile), area, aspect ratio, air density, airspeed, angle of attack. Internal pressure in the wing, how influenced by use of brakes.
3. Resistance/Drag: Parasitic, induced, relation to airspeed and angle of attack. More drag when paraglider is behind the pilot on the ground than when overhead.
4. The nature of flying: One is always dependent on continuous forward airspeed in order to keep flying, one can not stop or reverse.
5. Load: Weight, G-force. Forces in turns, lift gradients gusts and turbulence. Opening shocks.
6. Driving forces:
a. On the ground: By running.
b. In the air: The principle of the inclined plane: In flying without engine one is always going down (related to the air around you) because gravity is the driving force.
7. Airspeed versus Groundspeed. Wind effects: Why to take off and land into the wind. Head- or tail-wind, wind drift and crabbing, drift and corrections in turns.
8. Stalls: Description, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery. In turns, accelerated, secondary, in wind and lift gradients, downwind, in gusts and turbulence.
9. Frontal collapses: Both asymmetrical (one wingtip) and symmetrical (both wingtips, or entire leading edge). Description, dangers, recognition, avoidance and recovery. In turns, gusts and turbulence.
10. Spins, Spirals, Skids and Slips. Negative spins. Description, recognition, avoidance and recovery.
11. Wing tip vortices: Turbulence behind all aircraft, how to avoid collapses therefrom. Ground effect.
12. Control movements and principles: Airspeed control and turning. Use of brakes versus weight-shift.
13. Airspeeds and speed polars: Minimum sink and best glide angle, relation between airspeeds in head- and tail-wind and varied wing loading.
Micro-meteorology (site conditions) and meteorology:
1. Wind, description and creation: Airflow from high to low pressure. Created by uneven heating of the surface. (Samples: Water flow. The sea breeze).
2. Wind measurement, wind meters, natural indicators and signs.
a. Velocity: Knots, MPH or m/s.
b. Directions: Compass and quadrant (Head or up, tail or down, crosswind).
3. The wind force: Increases proportionally with the square of the wind velocity increase. Effects, dangers.
4. Wind gradient: Effect, dangers, corrections.
5. Uneven wind/gusts, turbulence and lift: Causes, signs, dangers.
a. Mechanical turbulence: Behind or lee of obstructions, trees, buildings, hills.
b. Thermal turbulence: Instability, uneven heating, dangers, recognition.
c. Wind shifts: Gusts and dangers.
d. Wind shears: Descriptions, dangers.
6. Local conditions: Terrain effects, valleys, around obstructions and corners.
7. Weather: Creation, heat and pressure differences, stability/ instability, circulation, wind systems.
8. Sea breeze: Creation, effects.
9. Waves: Rotors. Behind mountains, signs and dangers.
10. Ridge effects: Descriptions, kinds, gradients, dangers.
11. Thermals: Description, instability, turbulence, signs.
12. Clouds: Cumulus, cumulonimbus, rotor clouds, dangers.
13. Airmasses and Fronts: Cold fronts, warm fronts, signs and conditions.
14. Weather reports and evaluation:
a. Weather reports: Signs, interpretation.
b. Reading wind: direction and force, at takeoff and landing, along the flight path, indicators.
c. Recognition of safe and dangerous conditions.
Paragliders and equipment:
1. Construction and Terminology: Materials and parts.
2. Airworthiness standards and requirements: Design and certification, purpose and need. Design maximum loads, manoeuvring limitations, stability, stall characteristics, manoeuvrability, speed range, pilot weight and rating.
3. Handling: Control response. Roll, pitch and yaw coupling. Stability, slow flight and stalls, B-lining, takeoff and landing characteristics. Effect of accelerators or speed systems.
4. Maintenance: Daily and periodical inspection and care, qualified tuning and repairs.
5. Selection of gliders: Rating and experience, type of flying, performance, handling and weight range. Use and ambitions. Appropriate model rating for students: Standard rating (not Performance or Competition rating).
6. Selection of harnesses: Types of harnesses, weight-shift or classic; use of crossbracing. Rating and experience.
7. Performance: Minimum sink, maximum glide, maximum speed, penetration, turning capacity.
8. Safety equipment: Helmet, boots, gloves, clothing. Rescue system. Dorsal protection and hip protection. Airbags.
1. Physical factors: Fitness, strength, exhaustion. Drugs and alcohol. Vertigo, hyperventilation.
2. Psychological factors: Anxiety and fear of height. Recognition of own ability and limitations versus natural and equipment limitations. Confidence versus overconfidence (The Icarus syndrome). Group and personal pressures and approval, saying no, the walk down. Self discipline.
3. The learning process and environment: The training system, objectives, description, safety, motivation, individual progress.
4. Conduct/ Airmanship:
a. The nature of flying: One is always dependent on continuous forward airspeed in order to keep flying, one can not stop or reverse.
b. The process of flying: Insight, continuous evaluations, decisions, actions. With regard to the nature of flying, being ahead.
c. The commando principle: The necessity of completing every started flight. The danger of panic.
Rules and regulations (as applicable):
1. Government or other official authorities.
a. Airspace and Air traffic: Controlled and uncontrolled airspace and airports, VFR/IFR traffic and rules, right of way rules.
b. Other rules.
2. National Paragliding Association.
3. School and training.
4. Local and site(s).
5. Code of good practice.
6. Right of way rules.
Practical flying and safety:
1. Instructional and safety recommendations.
2. Flight planning: The process of flying: Information/observation, evaluation, decisions and execution. Making a flight plan.
3. Preparations: Standard routines and checks, double checks of critical factors.
4. Flying exercises: The practical skill requirements: Description, intention, procedures, execution, errors and dangers.
5. Critical, dangerous and emergency situations: Their causes, avoidance, recognition, corrections. Applicable training methods (simulations).
a. Poor preparation: Equipment failures and malfunctions.
b. Ground handling in gusts and strong winds: Loss of control. Being dragged, avoidance, prevention.
c. Stalls: Level flight, in turns, low, high, in takeoff, in gradient, in gusts, in turbulence, in (unexpected) lift, downwind, downwind turns in gradient.
d. Poor takeoff techniques: Poor control of glider, poor airspeed and directional control. Over-control, turn back to hill. Getting into harness, release of brakes to accomplish same.
e. Wind conditions: Wind strength, crosswind, gusts and turbulence, unexpected lift, drift into hill, wind gradient.
f. Crashing/ Emergency landings: Avoidance, preparations.
g. Takeoffs above 1500m: Air density decreases. True airspeed increases.
h. Critical manoeuvres: Flying close to terrain and obstructions, stalls and slow flight, 360o turns, spins, spiral dives, pylon flying. Takeoff in wind without assistance, particularly near cliffs.
i. Unfamiliarity: With sites, conditions, glider or harness, manoeuvre or tasks.
j. Physical and Physiological factors: Stress, pressure, exhaustion, fear, drugs and alcohol.
k. Poor airmanship: Overestimating own ability and/or underestimating sites, conditions, equipment or task.
l. Vertigo: Flying with reduced visibility.
m. Combinations: Of two or more of the above multiplies the risk of accidents.
n. Emergency manoeuvre: Use of parachutes, prevention of down-planing of paraglider after parachute deployment. Landings in water, trees, rough terrain, obstructed areas, electrical wires.
o. Accidents: Assistance and reports.
In accordance with appropriate authority’s recommendations.
PARA PRO Stage 2, PRACTICAL SKILLS Requirements:
Part 1: Introduction and LOW FLIGHTS:
1. Transport, care and maintenance: of paraglider and equipment. Accordion vs. rolled fold up. Proper stowing of lines and risers.
2. Pre and post flight routines: Laying out, making a horseshoe, “building a wall”, adjustments, pre-flight checks, line and karabiner control, harness control, attachment of cross-bracing and speed system. Packing up.
3. Takeoff position and final check: Position of risers and toggles. Body and arm position. Final check.: Of karabiners and cross-bracing, conditions, clear area.
4. Takeoff exercises. The glider to flying position: Determined, correct running to get the glider up. Checking the glider visually. Letting go of front risers. Correcting problems. Continue running, smooth acceleration, no jumping into harness.
5. Running with glider: Controlling position of paraglider and angle of attack and roll, on flat ground and on a slope.
6. Stalling and stopping a run: On flat ground and on a slope. Correct landing technique. Not flaring too soon.
7. Flight planning: Evaluating site and conditions. Decisions, giving a flight plan.
8. Takeoff: Takeoff position. Smooth acceleration and lift off, with correct airspeed and good directional control.
9. Speed control: Best glide angle speed, no tendency of slow flight or stall.
10. Directional control: Maintaining heading, smooth course corrections, avoidance of oscillations.
11. Shallow turns: Co-ordinated entry and recovery, small diversions from course.
12. Landings: Directly into wind.
Part 2: ALTITUDE GLIDING:
1. Planning: Insight, evaluation of site and conditions, decisions, giving a flight plan.
2. Pre-flight routines: Repetition of Part 1, spreading, adjustment, pre-flight checks.
3. Takeoffs: Start position, final check, smooth acceleration, lift off at correct speed, good speed and directional control.
4. Speed control manoeuvres: Best glide angle and minimum sink speed.
5. Turns: 90° – 180°, gentle to medium bank, left and right, co-ordinated.
6. Slow flight: Recognition and recovery (at safe altitudes).
7. Ground reference manoeuvres: Figure 8-turns and rectangular patterns, correcting for wind-drift.
8. Traffic rules: Manoeuvring according to other traffic.
9. Landing patterns: Following planned procedure. Approach with downwind, base and final legs. Figure 8-turns. Control of gradient.
10. Turning and landing only by the use of the rear risers: Simulation of brake-line failure.
11. Precision approaches and landings: Safe and standing inside an area pre-set by the instructor. Slow flight and mushing is not allowed.
PARA PRO Stage 2, EXPERIENCE Requirements:
1. A minimum of 6 flying days.
2. A minimum of 30 successful flights, of which at least 10 are altitude gliding flights.
PARA PRO Stage 2, AIRMANSHIP Requirements:
The instructor should be convinced that the student is able to take care of his own and others’ safety, while flying low or altitude gliding within the instructional and safety recommendations given.
Before a student is signed off to become a pilot, he should pass a written test on air law, applicable rules and regulations and code of good practice, to ensure that he has all the necessary knowledge to operate alone, safely and correctly at sites and in the air.
Each skill should be practised until the instructor is convinced that it is mastered within correct and safe procedures and limitations for the applicable stage. The skills may be signed off progressively as the above criteria is met. A special flight test is hence not necessary.